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Apache2: Activating User public_html Directories & Virtual Directories- Hosts- Domains under Ubuntu Linux for a Private LAN

Updated 2013-04, Ubuntu 12.04 LTS.

NOTE: In the default PHP Apache2 module configuration, you must enable PHP for user directories.

Summary: Let the hacker beware (Disclaimer)

These pages describes how I activated the public_html user directories to be served up by the Apache web server and set up virtual directories, meaning fake domains, for a private LAN. The audience is developers and home users who want to work on their websites at their desktop computers. I have no idea if this is applicable to the GUI-less server software. These are experiences I had using computers in my home. They may or may not work for you. I also don't know the distinctions between virtual hosts, virtual directories, and virtual domains.

Step 1: Installing Apache2 and php5

In a terminal (Applications...Accessories...Terminal), type everything after "$"

me@myhost$ sudo apt-get install apache2 php5

You will be told you're getting some extra software packages. The software php5 is not necessary, but at some point it will probably be useful to you if you are developing your own website. You can also use System...Admin...Synaptic Package Manager to install the software.

Test Step 1: When you install apache2 in Ubuntu linux, it is set to start automatically on each boot. You should be able to open a web browser and type in "http://localhost" and see the default "It Works!" message. If you can't do this, don't proceed. One thing to check is that you have the IP associated with "localhost" in the /etc/hosts file.

Possible Error / Gotcha if Any Reinstalls Done

Subtitled "Don't do what I have done". If you have a problem and decide to reinstall apache... just using "mark for reinstallation" in Synaptic or "reinstall" on the command line did NOT get me a fresh /etc/apache2 setup. I'm not sure which package all this stuff is in, but if you select all the titles with "apache2" in them and "completely remove", or "force remove", or "--purge", then you will be able to start anew again. Research "apt" for the right commands. Make sure you check the timestamp on the files in the /etc/apache2 directory to confirm you have a new installation.

Step 2: Activating the User's public_html Directory with userdir

Create a directory (folder) called "public_html" in your home directory, with your file browser or the command below. Do NOT use the sudo command.

me@myhost$ mkdir public_html

I have found that on a simple development machine, it is easier to have your work all within your own home directory and not have to worry about permissions and folders owned by the root user. What it gets you is the ability to access your websites in your home directory by a URL in the form http://localhost/~USER_NAME. We can improve upon this with fake domains, but first things first.

There are only two commands you need to enter to activate the User Directory feature, and then one command to reload the configuration files. The last command includes an absolute path, so it doesn't matter where you execute it from. The first two "ln" commands assume you are in the directory /etc/apache2/mods-enabled. What you need to do is create two symbolic links (soft links, symlinks) in the stated directory pointing to the corresponding module in /etc/apache2/mods-available. So, if "$" is your prompt,

me@myhost$ cd /etc/apache2/mods-enabled
me@myhost$ sudo ln -s ../mods-available/userdir.conf userdir.conf
me@myhost$ sudo ln -s ../mods-available/userdir.load userdir.load
me@myhost$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

On your home system, restarting apache will give you a warning "apache2: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using for ServerName" simply because you are at home and don't have a fully qualified domain name. No problem.

Test Step 2: Open up a browser and type http://localhost/~USER_NAME, where "USER_NAME" is your actual username. For Debian and Ubuntu, your home directory is located within the "/home" directory. Apache should show the folders and files you have in your directory, or even display a web page if you have an "index.html" file in there. If you get sent to the internet or the default apache2 directory, something is wrong and you shouldn't go to the next step.

Step 3: Virtual Hosts + Domains for PRIVATE LAN DEVELOPMENT SERVER

THIS METHOD IS BROKEN AS OF APACHE 2.4.7 (maybe before). Sorry, I didn't research a fix yet. Here is the reference.

Background: There is a HUGE benefit to using virtual hosts (fake local domains) for the do-it-yourself website developer. You can create all of your development sites exactly the same as for your live web host server. For example, if you have a site on a shared hosting environment that you do not have full control over, then the path "/" is the "top of the world" to your instance of the Apache sever. You cannot duplicate these paths using the "~USER_NAME" address.

Part A - Networking: Okay, this is hardly networking so don't sweat it, as everything happens within your own machine. Keep in mind there is always more than one way to achieve things. I am describing a method that uses a fixed IP for my server. You CAN do this even if your router is set to DHCP. It makes it much easier when you want to have other machines in your house access your server using the fake domain.

Part A - For ONE COMPUTER. If you are only interested in development on one machine, then the rest of the notes on this page will work without fixed IP addresses. You can simply add the fake, local domains (see parts B-C), to the "localhost" line of the /etc/hosts file. In the example below, "lapcom" and "lapfarmdens" are the fake domains. Otherwise, set up fixed IPs if multiple machines are used.

# A sample /etc/hosts file for SINGLE COMPUTER USE localhost lapcom lapfarmdens chair

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
[The rest of the IPv6 stuff is not shown]

Part A - For SERVER + CLIENTS SETUP. To give a network card (NIC) a fixed (static) IP address, follow the expanded explanation on the Linux Fixed IP Address page.

To associate your fake local domains to your local computer, modify the /etc/hosts file to include ALL the aliases (fake domain) names you want to associate with each computer: one line of the file per entry. List the IP and then the aliases, separated by spaces. This is your local DNS. Here is an example.

# A sample /etc/hosts file for SERVER + CLIENT SETUP localhost tree
# KB Section
# samsung chair lapcom lapfarmdens table tree com farmdens shrub

# The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
[The rest of the IPv6 stuff is not shown]

WARNING (RANT): Like I said at the top, these notes are for usage on a PRIVATE LAN, i.e., NOT the internet. Here you can read where someone sent me a apache virtual directories warning. If you try to use these notes on the internet, then you are an idiot and I cannot help you. Warning Update: For what it's worth, the apache2.2 documentation now explicitly states that the absolute minimum you need in the VirtualHost directive is... exactly what I have below. The Name-Based Virtual Host page shows it in the first blue example box. The main thing to remember is that for your development machine and/or LAN, your /etc/hosts file is your DNS.

Part B - Create Apache Virtual Directories: We will now be concerned with the directories in /etc/apache2 called "sites-available" and "sites-enabled" (you see a pattern here?). This is extremely easy to do if you know the trick that you really don't need most of the stuff in the "default" virtual directory file if you are just working in your home. The simplest thing to do is to show you what I use. This will be a physical file in the "sites-available" section. Later we make links.

# For apache2.2. For apache2.0, I didn't need the ":80" part.
<VirtualHost *:80>

ServerName com

DocumentRoot /home/USER_NAME/public_html/com


The pre-formatted code above is the content of a plain text file I can call anything I want, but will name it "com" so as to keep my sanity. "ServerName" is the name of the fake domain that will allow you to enter "http://com" in your browser to see the site. The "DocumentRoot" is the absolute path to a directory called "com". Within my home directory, I have created a file called "public_html" where all my websites are. Each website has a directory within public_html, like "com", to keep all of the files for that website. I happen to keep the names consistent throughout, but that is not necessary. You need to substitute "USER_NAME" with your actual user name. So the next file we create would be /etc/apache2/sites-available/farmdens (you can use $sudo gedit to make it simple) and would look like this:

# For apache2.2. For apache2.0, I didn't need the ":80" part.
<VirtualHost *:80>

ServerName farmdens

DocumentRoot /home/USER_NAME/public_html/com/farmdens


Follow this pattern for all of your virtual hosts (fake local domains).

Part C - Make Apache Virtual Directories Available: Luckily, there is really nothing new here. You follow an exactly analogous procedure to activate Virtual-Hosts that you did to activate User Directory modules. We create symbolic links within the directory /etc/apache2/sites-enabled to the sites in the "sites-available" directory.

me@myhost$ cd /etc/apache2/sites-enabled
me@myhost$ sudo ln -s ../sites-available/com com
me@myhost$ sudo ln -s ../sites-available/farmdens farmdens
me@myhost$ sudo /etc/init.d/apache2 restart

Test Step 3: Okay, by now I'm assuming you actually have some kind of a website you are working with and that the contents of it are within a directory, like "com", in your public_html folder. Open up a browser and try a local-only address, like "http://com". Apache should serve up the index file in that directory. The index.html file should not be a problem. If you are using PHP, however, you would have to enable PHP for user directories as of Ubuntu 10.4, Lucid Lynx.

Step 4: Configure PHP and a Client Machine

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